All about Power and Control Issues

Sexual Addiction is a way of manifesting a deeper pore and control problem. Any kind of issue regarding power or control leads to a sex addiction to develop. When a person does not have a healthy balance of control and power in their behavior that is when he starts getting affected in his interpersonal relations with other people and in the way he thinks and emotes. Any person with a control issue would have a difficulty in controlling behaviors like drinking, eating and having sex too. In any relationship if there is a person with a certain power control issue then he is normally a victim of being controlled by others.

Normally power and control issues are seen to develop when the person is a child. This normally happens due to what the older siblings do or what they do not do. If a parent is very disciplined and controlling then a child is said to have a power control issue. Children are seen to being life with a lot of lack of control. Parents have to ensure that they can teach the child to gain control over things and over their minds. It is like the child lifts the emotional weights and the parent has to provide him the right weight. If the weight is too heavy the child cannot pick it up and if the weight is light then he has nothing to lift and so he wouldn’t get stronger.

If the parent has been too disciplined or less disciplined, the little amount of control would result in the child not being able to take orders or develop his own power of control. When the child grows up he sees that this habit in him is seen in acts like not being able to curb something. Such people also have a power control issue over sex. There are people who take a treatment for sexual addiction. This is again a result of the power control issue. They behave in a particularly out of control way. There is a lot of trauma related in such cases. This person who is sexually out of control needs to be rehabilitated and taught to live a normal life.

Sexual addiction damages the psychology and attitude of a person. Therapy is one way you could resolve this power and control issue. Sometimes the question is just about getting a certain control that can be developed within. The therapist t helps to guide the person towards making progress in healthy control and power. This is actually a development process. If parents give the rightful healthy limits then children stay healthy.

Addiction especially sexual addiction comes due to over control of caregivers in the school. This power and control problem disrupts a child’s activity and thus results in a lot more problems.

Power control is something that often leads to problems like sexual addiction. It is in our hands to take care of them.

Learn all about how you could avoid a person from getting sexually addicted  and avoid such power and control problems.

Celebrities With Stds

Oftentimes people like to envisage celebs as whatsoever fetishized impression has been recounted about them either by the masses or their personal glossy promoters. Though, the reality is that celebs are exceptionally attractive individuals who’ve seriously blundered & connoisseurs have approximated that 123 percent of them have a minimum of one sexually transmitted disease. Here are a few noteworthy exemplars of celebrities with STDs who were not able to conceal their secret.

Paris Hilton

This virtuous doll has been well-known for matters apart from her sex tapes. The attention-grabbing aspect about Paris is that, in spite of the sureness one may be having in one’s mind about her having an STD; there is actually solid proof for backing such buzz. After knowingly or unknowingly lagging behind in imbursements on an accommodation, her belongings were confiscated. Attempts on pulling off that lame excuse she earlier used when caught with coke – that ‘it’s for a friend’ backfired as Guess what! Valtrex drug (medication deployed for treating genital herpes occurrences) was found with a prescription bearing her name on it. Paris Hilton allegedly just gesticulated & must’ve certainly begun pondering about how much folks would be paying for the photographs of it.

Jessica Alba

Though males all over might be tempted at looking at women celebs & writing them off as STD-stricken sluts for compensating the reality that majority of them might never be that providential to bed somebody that sexy – but, alas! The real is much more downbeat. On tracing the paths of herpes throughout Hollywood, it mostly retraces back to some extraordinarily licentious Meathead. In case of Jessica, it was Derek Jeter whom she went around with. Cash Warren was the one running out & refilling Valtrex prescription for her regularly. This piece of news may well have been a real bummer for all those fantasizing about Alba, but it’s another reason for beating the hell out of Derek Jeter.

David Hasselhoff

Eighties was the time, when protected sex was something of a novel health fad which solely granola-eating California-residents were being heedful about, almost every celeb one adored as child-artists was humping whatever in view. It was a twilight period when several sexually transmitted diseases & unbridled foolhardiness were rife.

That said, in case you were a celeb three decades back, you ‘are’ having something – David Hasselholf being part of the guilty gang. Now, all those swooning over Hasselholf sprinting on the sands in Baywatch telecasts would certainly be disappointed with this revelation.

Pamela Anderson

There are loads of ways one may speculate Pamela Anderson got an STD, possibly too much amorousness with Hasselhoff on the Baywatch sets, perhaps she was simply famed in the eighties – which by itself appears to have spawned STDs. Though actually Pam was wary enough to catch anything – that was till she met Tommy Lee, whom she should’ve known was swarming with the disease. The positive piece of news is that Silicone-enhanced Anderson is progressing well in her fight with Hepatitis C and her physician stating her to be healthy as a horse at 40 than she’s ever been. In 2003, she stated that she wasn’t expected to survive past 15 years subsequent to have contracted the STD from Lee. It was declared that Pam was mentally prepared to flout every odd & cure the disease.

Kristanna Loken

Verbal fame-slutting Kristanna Loken with a known sexual preference for both genders is perhaps most remembered for her part as the exterminator in the flick Terminator 3 – The Rise of the Sexbots. Although, she’s super-hot, she committed the blunder of acting in the Uwe Boll film & worse than that – date him.

For this mistake, the Almighty struck her with pustules, sightlessness & genital herpes. Following this, the holy men congregated & dubbed God ‘A Puss’ for afflicting such a mild punishment, particularly when one takes into consideration the torment all underwent when watching ‘Bloodrayne’.

Steven Tyler

Aerosmith rock music sold like hot cakes among grannies who purchased CDs for their rocker grand-children & girlies with a liking to the video recording of Armageddon. Lead songster Steve Tyler made hay when sunshine during the days (most probably by swindling femmes into supposing that he’s Mick Jagger), though he landed with Hepatitis C.

Not surprisingly, when Steve confessed about this wasting condition five years back, those who’d witnessed him recently were taken aback that this was the sole macerating condition Steve was having.

Britney Spears

Britney’s nose-diving whorl has caused her to awaken in a number of odd beds after having partied hard. The ex-member of the well-liked ‘Mickey Mouse Club’ has also had a heated lip-lock with Madonna. Procuring Zovirax for her STD is a well-documented fact.

Justin Beiber

Followers guess that Beiber might have got syphilis in a latest rendezvous with curvaceous Kim Kardashian or perhaps an older celeb seductress with her finer female guiles got the better of him. Possibly, he’s yet immaturish & incapable of aptly handling his abrupt shot to stardom & fame.

Lindsay Lohan

The ex-Disney luminary truly did evolve into a feral party-hearty femme – with herpes. It appears that Lohan has been through more men actors than a real cuisine wagon.

Robin Williams

Fondly remembered for his sycophantic, plainly cheerful roles, it is tricky in remembering that there was a phase when Williams was the cool dude (making out & contracted herpes).

So, which of these celebrities with STDs have astonished you the most or hardly so?

Wafer Thin Lingual Strips Quicker Better Alternative To Viagra

A wafer-thin strip melting in the tongue may be a novel means of helping impotent males. The strip bearing strong resemblances to mouth-freshener slivers vended in sweet marts seems to have a faster effect than what Viagra could offer.

An approximate 1 in 2 males beyond forty years of age ail from problems in getting proper erection occurring quite often. Those men who are diabetic, having hormone-related issues, stressed out or are depressed appear to be the ones most likely suffering from impotence.

The National Health Services in UK shells out about fifty-eight million pounds on a yearly basis to hand out over seventeen million replicate Viagra prescriptions and several medications for combating erectile dysfunction.

In the last decade medications like Cialis, Levitra, Viagra have managed to transform the therapy for impotent males.

Before the availability of these medications in the market, the sole choices left were to administer medicine jabs directly to the penile organ or using a manual operated pump for increasing blood flow to the penis.

Not surprising, none of these choices managed to gain popularity with the masses.

But, impotence-combating pills additionally have their shortcomings. As majority of the males swallow Viagra in-between half an hour to sixty minutes to totally react to the drug – a postponement that has shown to be a mood-killer in several couples.

The new-fangled therapy has the analogous active constituents alike several impotence-tackling tablets however in smallish molecular form.

Their packing is done into a petite easily-melting sliver which is meant for lingual placement and disappearing quickly in seconds. In a preliminary trial that contrasted the wafers to a conventionally employed impotence-fighting tablet, the strip was observed to release analogous levels of the drug into the blood.

Additional studies reveal that the strip functions thirty percent more swiftly as compared to Viagra and majority of the males showing response in below half-an-hour in contrast to forty minutes to an hour in case of other medications.

It is due to the tissues that line the oral area are full of numerous small blood vessels that are situated close to the cheek’s surface and sub-lingual  which offer a swift pathway into the blood.

Presently, the maker, InterGenx, a company in Canada plans to corroborate its preliminary findings in larger-scaled studies & the dissolving wafers would become obtainable in the subsequent 2 to 3 years.

The analogous technology can be employed for developing quick-acting ‘wafer’ for pain respite, hypertension and antidepressants.

Expert in Sexual Medicine at Oxfordshire, Doctor D. Edwards states that the dissolvable wafers can be a huge advancement in the therapy for impotence. It can be beneficial for huge numbers of males. He added that the analogous form of wafer is being employed for treating migraines wherein tackling pains swiftly is of paramount importance. All those medicines capable of melting in the tongue would definitely show quicker responses as compared to pills.

Sanguinity For Azoospermic Men Having Testicular Failure

Until recently, men having NOA (non-obstructive azoospermia)- a condition wherein there a dearth of sperm in the semen not arising due to an impediment in the reproductive system, were  inapt aspirants for IVF.

Testicular failure has been observed to affect nearly one percent of the male populace and ten percent of men seeking fertility assessment. Testis biopsy done onazoospermic men having testicular failure (non-obstructive azoospermia or NOA) have been diagnosed with either Sertoli cell-only pattern, arrested maturation or hypospermaogenesis.

For ascertaining that a semen sample is accurately azoospermic, the sample is centrifuged with scrupulous microscopic evaluation of the pellet. A comprehensive examination of the person’s total medical history and physical exams is done by doctors for identification of likely repairable causes of male factor sterility.

Classically, men with NOA would have small-sized testes (less than fifteen cc) and a flat epididymis. Some could have a past of cryptorchidism. Hormonal assessments of such men reveal soaring serum FSH levels and normal to close to normal levels of testosterone and estradiol.

Before another additional intercession, the doctors would generally attempt on treating any reparable anomalies that are detected on evaluating the man having NOA inclusive of operative mending of big varicoceles, correcting hormonal anomalies and evading gonadal toxins for no less than 3 months before attempting TESE (testicular sperm extraction).

The sole choices left for such couples to have kids were the employment of donor spermatozoa or adopting children. However, numerous pertinent clinical findings have modified the approach taken towards this condition.

Firstly, scientists have mentioned in the open access journal ‘Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology’ that sperms derived from men having NOA and obstructive azoospermia or OA- both have the capability of creating embryos.

Additionally it was earlier thought that sperm should travel the male reproductive tract prior to attaining the capacity to undertake normal fertilization of an egg. Researchers have found that in men having unreconstructable obstructive azoospermia inclusive of inherited deficiency of the vas deferens indicate that total passage via the epididymis is not a precondition for fertilization. Recovery of the sperm from the testis or epididymis was linked with ideal pregnancy rates employing IVF.

Another important discovery the scientists have made is that micro-manipulating gametes at the time of assisted reproduction could enhance these pregnancy rates.

Consequently, an observation drawn was that optimization of in-vitro manipulation methods could further improve fertilization and pregnancy rates by utilising epididymal or testicular sperms. This finding lead the researchers to another crucial clinical observation that sperm could be recovered from the testes of  men having OA and using it with the assisted reproductive procedure of ICSI or intracytoplasmic sperm injection at the time of IVF (in-vitro reproduction) with an elevated probability of attaining pregnancies and normal child births.

Such revelations have led to researchers from Belgium and other parts of the world to conduct TESE with ICSI for men having NOA.

Could Severe Hsv 1 Hsv 2 Spate Increase Susceptibility To Cancer

Genital herpes could lead to outbursts in areas somewhere within the boxer shorts. The precise site does not augment or lessen the severity of herpes in any manner.

Herpes simplex infects individuals in two forms, namely: type 1 that quite frequently affects the oral region. Type 2 is mostly observed to affect the genitals as its most preferred spots. Nevertheless both of these types of Herpes could be transmitted easily in between two partners, i.e., from the mouth of one partner to the genitals of the other or intermittently the other way round. Factually, few studies have revealed that nearly half of the newly surfaced cases of genital herpes belong to type 1. However, the sole sigh of relief lies in the fact that HSV type 1 affecting the genitals has a tendency to have lesser reappearances as compared to HSV type 2.

The herpes virus as an assemblage prefer to lay low in the nervous system and then have a sporadic eruption along one nerve course, mostly when the body is under stress and strain of any kind. The silver lining in this dark cloud is that herpes does not lead to any form of cancers.

HPV or human papillomavirus is the reason behind enormous majority of occurrences of cervical cancers and are major contributing factors leading to cancers inflicting the anus, penis and the mouth.

The surfacing of herpes lesions in the inner vaginal region does facilitate easier means of access for other kinds of STDs or sexually transmitted diseases as one’s innate blockade of unharmed mucosa or skin gets broken down due to the presence of an active ulcer. Hence, it is particularly essential to ensure that one abstains from any sexual or physical contact or dependably employ condoms for lowering the risk of contracting an additional sexually transmitted disease. In spite of the fact that one fails to feel or spot herpes eruption though, one must bear in mind that the person has the potential to shed the herpes virus and are hence potentially infectious to others.

The treatment offered is based on the rate of recurrence and how severe the outbreaks are, along with the status of herpes of the partners one is involved with. In case one is having merely a single or two eruptions on an annual basis, majority of the individuals choose to go in for an antiviral dosage of pills that are to be consumed solely in situations of outbreaks.

The solution lies in promptly starting on the medicines when one starts sensing any kind of tingling or burning in the spot where one usually has had an outbreak instead of waiting till the blisters start appearing.

Starting on early with the medicines proves to be more effectual in curbing the extent and lowering the severity of the eruption.

Suppressive therapies are the best way out for those ailing from regular outbreaks or are having mates not infected with herpes. In such case, one would need to start taking an antiviral medicine every day as a pre-emptive measure instead of waiting for the eruptions to occur.

Promising Topical Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction

According to U.S. scientists, a viable alternative has surfaced that is truly heaven-sent for those impotent men intolerant to the pill version of the drugs. This topical emulsion for treating erectile dysfunction has shown potentiality during the animal trials that might just become a great alternative in men.

Oral drugs dosage of erectile dysfunction belonging to a medication category – PDE5 or phosphodiesterase inhibitors are commonly employed and immensely effectual, though could cause certain side effects like headache, stomach distress and disturbance, congestion in the nose, flushed feeling in the face and auditory and visual problems. Men that have lately experienced a heart attack or with chronic heart ailments need to be cautious when taking oral drugs for ED, if at all is necessary.

The novel nanoparticles based cream can hold drugs or other matter like nitric oxide and are effective in slow and continual delivery. Nitric oxide is the molecule that signals for the dilatation of the blood vessels that lead to an erection.

The nanoparticle therapy was conducted on eighteen rats bred to have age-associated erectile dysfunction. A batch of rats were administered nanoparticles  with nitric oxide while another batch were administered nanoparticles with nitric oxide with an additional trial drug known as silorphin ( that has a unique means of functioning diverse from PDE5 inhibitors). A third set of rats were administered nanoparticles with nitric oxide and the Cialis – a PDE5 inhibitor tadalafil.

From the 5 among the 7 rats that were administered nanoparticles with nitric oxide and all eleven rats that were given nanoparticles with nitric oxide and additionally either silorphin or tadalafil, exhibited favourable erectile functioning.

During the course of a news broadcast undertaken in the university, the co-author in this study, Dr. Joel M. Friedman, professor  in physiology, biophysics and medicine stated the response rate of the nanoparticles took a mere few minutes, that is essentially what men expect out of an ED medicine. She further added that in rats and human beings alike, it took half an hour to one hour for the oral ED medicine to start working.

The study was conducted by the scientists from Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Yeshiva University in New York City. Lately, the study was published online in the Journal of Sexual Medicine.

The scientists were optimistic that when the safety standards and dosage studies were shown to be effective in rats, the trials on humans could commence in a few years time.

Promising Topical Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction

According to U.S. scientists, a viable alternative has surfaced that is truly heaven-sent for those impotent men intolerant to the pill version of the drugs. This topical emulsion for treating erectile dysfunction has shown potentiality during the animal trials that might just become a great alternative in men.

Oral drugs dosage of erectile dysfunction belonging to a medication category – PDE5 or phosphodiesterase inhibitors are commonly employed and immensely effectual, though could cause certain side effects like headache, stomach distress and disturbance, congestion in the nose, flushed feeling in the face and auditory and visual problems. Men that have lately experienced a heart attack or with chronic heart ailments need to be cautious when taking oral drugs for ED, if at all is necessary.

The novel nanoparticles based cream can hold drugs or other matter like nitric oxide and are effective in slow and continual delivery. Nitric oxide is the molecule that signals for the dilatation of the blood vessels that lead to an erection.

The nanoparticle therapy was conducted on eighteen rats bred to have age-associated erectile dysfunction. A batch of rats were administered nanoparticles with nitric oxide while another batch were administered nanoparticles with nitric oxide with an additional trial drug known as silorphin ( that has a unique means of functioning diverse from PDE5 inhibitors). A third set of rats were administered nanoparticles with nitric oxide and the Cialis – a PDE5 inhibitor tadalafil.

From the 5 among the 7 rats that were administered nanoparticles with nitric oxide and all eleven rats that were given nanoparticles with nitric oxide and additionally either silorphin or tadalafil, exhibited favourable erectile functioning.

Promising Topical Treatment for Erectile DysfunctionDuring the course of a news broadcast undertaken in the university, the co-author in this study, Dr. Joel M. Friedman, professor in physiology, biophysics and medicine stated the response rate of the nanoparticles took a mere few minutes, that is essentially what men expect out of an ED medicine. She further added that in rats and human beings alike, it took half an hour to one hour for the oral ED medicine to start working.

The study was conducted by the scientists from Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Yeshiva University in New York City. Lately, the study was published online in the Journal of Sexual Medicine.

The scientists were optimistic that when the safety standards and dosage studies were shown to be effective in rats, the trials on humans could commence in a few years time.

Naturopathic Course For Impotence Part Ii

Amino acid L-arginine or Arginine – Arginine is noted to be innately present in food and is known to bolster the body’s production of nitric oxide which is the crucial compound that assists in erections by causing dilatation of the blood vessels present in the penis.

There have been diverse outcome to the studies inspecting L-arginine’s effectuality in curbing impotence. A test done in 1999 that is put out in the on-line academic journal BJU International, has discovered that elevated L-arginine dosages could aid in enhancing sexual functioning, though solely in those men that has unnatural nitric oxide metabolism like that related to heart disease.

In yet another study printed in the Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy during 2003, the researchers from Bulgaria cited that ED victims that consumed L-arginine alongside the extract derived from pine –pycnogenol noticed significant enhancements in sexual functioning that was free of side effects.

Mr. Geo Espinosa, the director of the Integrative Urological Center at NYU Langone Medical Center states that men suffering from heart ailments must consume L-Arginine only after undergoing medical supervision as L-arginine had the capacity to react with certain medicines.

DHEA – Those suffering from erectile dysfunction are noted to have lowered levels of testosterone which is vital for healthy sex drive and regular sexual functioning. Hence, such men show major improvement when they start on prescription testosterone replacement therapy.

Likewise, research has revealed that by consumption of supplements having DHEA could aid in allaying certain ED cases. This is due to the fact that DHEA is a hormone which the body is known to convert into testosterone and estrogen. However, DHEA could lead to certain problems inclusive of the undue repression of functioning of the pituitary gland. As the safety of its protracted use is still fuzzy, a majority of experts do not encourage the usage of these supplements.

Ginseng – Since long the Korean red ginseng has been employed to kindle male sexual functioning. Nonetheless, some studies have meticulously attempted to corroborate its advantages.

During a 2002 trial that was conducted on 45 major ED sufferers, ginseng was seen to aid in allaying ED symptoms and helped bring about increased firmness on the penile tip. Experts are uncertain regarding ginseng’s workability although it is believed to encourage the production of nitric oxide. Espinosa said that he would suggest ginseng for ED sufferers, however one needs to seek medical advice prior to taking ginseng as it could react with presently consumed drugs and lead to undesirable allergic reactions.

Worrisome Trend In Atypical Venereal Diseases Part I

In a majorly overlooked development, there has been a major rise in the cases of sexually transmitted diseases like Chlamydia and syphilis along with a noted surge in the number of unheard but bothersome venereal diseases.

The augment in the number of such cases have baffled specialists that were anticipating declined numbers due to widespread awareness and concern regarding AIDS. The number of the widely identified venereal diseases like syphilis has crept up subsequent to 5 years of reported drop and the antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoeal strains have been steadily increasing on an annual basis with eight lakh cited cases.

The health care officials are concerned about the increase in the previously rare diseases that are lesser known.  For instance, Chancroid – the bacterial infection that leads to genital sores and swollen lymph nodes, has risen ten times in the course of a decade from a mere some hundred reported yearly to greater than five thousand cases the previous year.

Several other diseases like granuloma inguinale and lymphogranuloma venerium have surged from few cited cases yearly to hundreds. As is the case with all venereal diseases, the cited cases are believed to depict a mere part of the actual occurrence hence making it tricky to diagnose.

The health officials consider the actual figures of the diseases still comparatively small, in comparison with a million genital warts cases or a quarter million herpes cases yearly. However, the uncommonness of such conditions is what makes it diagnosis and treatment trickier.

Even distinguishing commonly noted sexually transmitted diseases is not easy for the doctors that are not specialists, as there are a host of diseases and their preliminary symptoms could be quite subtle.

Amongst the lesser recognized diseases are:

  • Chancroid – a bacterial infection that leads to ulcers in the genital area and swollen lymph nodes in the groin. Though, there is treatment with antibiotics shots and tablets, however the bacterium has a propensity to become resistant to antibiotics making it quite problematical.
  • Granuloma inguinale – a bacterial disease that leads to genital and rectal ulcers. This condition is noted to react favourably to antibiotics course.
  • Lymphogranuloma venerium – A condition that could be the reason behind rectal infections, fever, swollen lymph nodes in the groin and inflammation caused due to a strain of the Chlamydia organism. Starting on a course of tetracycline is known to adequately treat the disease.

Leading Health Risks To Men Part Iii

The highly rated risks to men’s health are nothing furtive, rather these health threats are quite known to all and widespread, though most often avertable.

Depression and associated suicidal tendencies

Depression is not merely an awful mood swing, going through a bumpy phase in life or feeling blue. Depression causes emotional disarray that has an undue bearing on the entire system and health that amply attests the vital mind and body link. During depression, certain chemicals in the brain and the hormones that control stress go haywire and misbalanced leading sleep deprivation, loss of appetite and sapped energy levels. Scientists have implied that depressed men are more prone to getting cardiovascular disease.

Researchers earlier contemplated about depression being noted in a greater majority of women as compared to men. However, the reason for this could be men often concealing their depressed feelings or vent them in a manner diverse from women. Men rather than bursting into tears or displaying sadness often tend to get furious or hostile. As they don’t find it right to express that they are feeling depressed, many turn to binge drinking, smoking or other means to manage their depression.

Men most often don’t seek any assistance to resolve their depression thus leading to catastrophic outcome with more men than women able to put a complete and successful end to their suicide efforts. Suicide is ranked eighth prevalent reason leading to death in majority of men with it being even more in youngsters.

Largely both sexes react favourably to treatments for depression like medicine, therapy or a combo.

Diabetes – hushed health risk to Men

Diabetes normally commencing asymptomatic, quietly with eventual surge in blood glucose levels even noted in the urine after a period of time leading to excessive thirst and urinating at shorter intervals. High glucose slowly harms the blood vessels and nerves throughout the body leading to strokes, vision loss, heart and kidney failure and even surgically removal of certain body parts at times becomes necessary. Being obese and overweight only promotes the disease.

Inculcating physical activity for half an hour per day alongside proper dietary intake could avert type II diabetes with reasonable weight reduction for overweight individuals.

Erectile Dysfunction – general health issue among Men

Though not fatal, erectile dysfunction causes a reported depleted satisfaction in life that often leads to depressive tendencies. Atherosclerosis that is responsible for cardiovascular ailments and strokes is also known to cause erectile dysfunction or ED. Erectile dysfunction normally equates to the blood vessels in the body not optimally functioning. Several doctors believe erectile dysfunction as a harbinger of cardiovascular disease.

Seeking medical help will assist in finding a means to have a pleasing sex life and whether there are other health risks associated.