Heart Attack Precious Life Saving Guidelines Part I

Heart attack, medically termed as Acute Myocardial Infarction is a potentially fatal condition resulting from total obstruction of one of the coronary artery transporting blood to the heart. Nearly 50% of such patients would die in the initial hour of the commencement of chest pain. Hence, time is critical. In this case, time is not money but time is muscle. Notable advancements in heart attack management have majorly lowered the death rate and brought about a whirlwind of positive change.

Hyper acute emergency – crisis management strategies

Reperfusion of the heart muscle done by opening the obstructed artery by either Primary angioplasty or by clot-absolving medicine is the decisive treatment that is successfully employed.

Elaxim –Tenecteplase justly earns the accolades for being a life-giving drug. Its clot-busting properties have the potential to terminate a heart attack. Injections could be administered IV bolus either at the patient’s home, in the ambulance or Intensive Care Cardiac Unit.

Administering these injections on time could make a major distinction between being alive and fatality. In the global setting noted since 2000, elaxim is the swiftest delivery clot buster. If the injection is promptly delivered within six hours of the commencement of chest discomfort and pain, it could cause a positive change in the end result of heart attack cases. It releases the blockage in the artery in nearly 85% of heart attack cases and normalised TIMI III flow is attained. Prompt treatment guarantees favourable results with negligible complications.

Elaxim has been proven to have better efficiency as compared to earlier clot-busting medicines such as streptokinase and urokinase, as it could be administered I.V.bolus, is clot or fibrin specific, is non-allergic and leads to lesser extent of bleeding.

PAMI or Primary Angiography is deemed the gold standard for treating heart attacks. However, the procedure must be conducted in a Cath Lab in a hospital within a time span of ninety minutes from the commencement of chest pain. This critical time factor is quiet difficult to achieve. Statistics reveal that merely 4.2% patients in the United States and six percent in Europe are lucky enough to receive the treatment within the ninety minute time limit.

In several countries, even this is tricky and rather unfeasible to attain. This reveals that the so-professed gold-standard is a mirage for many, though PAMI does have its own standing. PAMI has to be carried out by proficient, adroit surgeons with state-of-the-art facilities, high volume centre with door to balloon period not crossing over ninety minutes.

Heart Attack Precious Life Saving Guidelines Part Ii

Elaxim, the clot disbanding drug has a plethora of advantages due to which it has become the preferred option. Also, elaxim could be a major boon for major sections of patients suffering from acute myocardial infection who get admission in I.C.C.U where often there is no provision for carrying out angiography and angioplasty. The success rates with elaxim are as high as compared to instant angioplasty when promptly administered in the initial three hours of a heart attack.

In the latest landmark Gracia II trial that is available in the European Heart Journal, sheds light on some intriguing concepts. A comparison was drawn regarding the post tenecteplase angioplasty that could be performed a couple of hours I.V. bolus of tenecteplase with PAMI. The trial revealed that primary and secondary end points were analogous in both. The novel terminology pharmaco invasive treatment is employed that has the benefits of drug and perfunctory intercession. Comparable findings were cited in both the trials namely TRANSFER-AMI and FAST-MI.

In conclusion, it emerges that the Tenecteplase injection is the idyllic therapy in patients ailing from ST elevation acute myocardial infarction especially in third world countries.

In few hours following administration of Tenecteplase, coronary angiography and angioplasty are generally carried out on all patients. This method is safe and leads to lesser complications in stabilized patients.

During angioplasty, stents are normally employed that comprise of two forms, namely drug-covered and non-drug or bare metal. There has been credible progress in drug eluting stents noted from first to second generation with long-standing drug release close to six months time period, eco-friendly stents and better outcomes. Drug-eluting balloons are novel concepts in intercession and appear to be quite promising. These stents help in averting the arterial collapse with drug-eluting ones performing even better.

Nowadays, coronary angiography and angioplasty could be performed either through the wrist region also known as Radial Intervention or through the groin area –Femoral Intervention. Both the approaches have satisfactory results and are conducted at the prudence of the operator. Atypically, the ulnar artery could also be used during the method.

Prior to hospitalization, thrombolysis has been a commonly sought endeavour by doctors that has proven to exhibit exceptional outcome and lowers fatality rates by seven percent. Also, C.T. Angiography is not a substitute to Coronary Angiography in heart attacks.

Those patients that complain of chest pain must be promptly given Sorbitrate. Heart patients must always carry some sorbitrate that could be a crucial life-saver during heart attacks.

Risk Factors and Complication Arrhythmia

Risk elements leading to arrhythmia:

  • Aging is known to predictably slacken the heart leading to lowered flexibility that has a major bearing on the transmission of the electrical impulses.
  • Individuals with a congenital heart anomaly are at greater risk of getting arrhythmia.
  • Those with heart ailments, constricted arteries, those with a history of heart attack, improperly functioning heart valves, past heart surgery and cardiomyopathy are more prone to developing arrhythmia.
  • Those with problems of the thyroid gland like hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism are more prone to developing arrhythmia.
  • Certain types of prescription medicines, some OTC medicines intended to treat cough and cold that contain pseudoephedrine might trigger the onset of arrhythmia.
  • Those ailing from high blood pressure are more prone to developing CAD or coronary arterial disease and other heart ailments that lead to inadequate transmission of electrical impulses.
  • Being overweight or obese has been strongly associated with a wide occurrence of heart ailments inclusive of type 2 diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease and arrhythmia.
  • An individual with uninhibited diabetes is a major risk of developing arrhythmia than a patient with restrained blood glucose levels or who has been taking adequate treatment.
  • Those with disruptive sleep apnea might be prone to bradycardia or atrial fibrillation with greater frequency than other individuals.
  • Electrolytes are crucial for the appropriate transmission of electric impulses among cells. An unbalance that could range from soaring to plummeting levels of electrolytes in the heart leads to arrhythmia.
  • Those who binge drink on a regular basis are more prone to developing atrial fibrillation.
  • Excessive consumption of caffeine or other forms of stimulants could lead to increased heart rate and ultimately leading to arrhythmias.
  • Illicit drug abuse like that of amphetamines and cocaine could lead to arrhythmias, particularly ventricular fibrillation.

Possible Complications:

  • Stroke – When the heart is undergoing fibrillation or quivering, it is an implication of its improper pumping mechanism. This could lead to blood accumulating in clusters that eventually leads to clot formation. A probable dislodgement of any one of the clots could travel to a brain artery, creating a blockage and thus leading to a stroke. Stroke would cause damage to the brain and could lead to fatality.
  • Heart Attack – Protracted tachycardia or bradycardia would lead to the heart inadequately pumping blood to the body and other vital organs that could lead to a cardiac failure. Treatment could normally aid in improving this situation.
  • Alzheimer’s disease – According to the studies conducted by the scientists at Intermountain Medical Center, Salt Lake City, there has been lucid association noted between atrial fibrillation and the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

Are There Any Safe Alternatives To Aspirin

Aspiring helps in warding off heart attack & stroke by averting blood clot formation. However for some groups of people aspirin is not advisable. For instance, the gains against heart attacks are applicable chiefly for males who are forty-five years or more & the gains against strokes chiefly for females in the age of fifty-five years and more. Also, aspirin could be causal to dodgy GI bleeding hence it is definitely contraindicated for individuals with a past of abdominal ulcers or some blood loss issues. Yet, several studies indicate that merely twenty percent of females & fourteen percent of males who must take aspirin are truly doing so.

Here are ways of identifying whether the gains are outweighing the risks for a particular individual.

Undergo Screening

Irrespective of how old one is, those at augmented risk for heart attacks or strokes in most cases require taking aspirin for protecting their heart. These include people having:

  • Ailed from a past stroke, TIA or heart attack.
  • Angina – chest pains worsening while exercising and easing once one rests.
  • Being through PTAS or CAS or coronary by-pass operation.
  • Diabetic.

Males in-between forty-five and seventy-nine years of age sans this history might additionally be benefited from daily intake of aspirin, however for ascertaining whether they require it, seeking medical opinion is necessary for ascertaining their risk of suffering from heart attacks in the subsequent decade on the basis of factors like cholesterol, blood-pressure readings and whether smoker or not. To assist in ascertaining this, the NCEP’s heart attack risk calculator is of great assistance.

Females in the age group of fifty-five and seventy-nine years old mostly are benefited however solely in case they are at an augmented risk of suffering from strokes in the subsequent decade dependent on several of the analogous risk factors. The USPSTF’s stroke calculator could vastly aid in ascertaining this.

Irrespective of the sex, aspirin treatment must be restricted to people not at an augmented risk of GI bleeding. Among males and females eighty years and more, there is yet not ample proof for knowing with certainty if aspirin is helpful or not.

Omega-3’s as Substitute for Aspirin?

Even though omega-3 fatty acids do help in thinning blood to some extent, the effect pale when contrasted against the effective anti-clotting properties of aspirin. The advantages linked to omega-3 fatty acids include a lesser risk of another heart attack, possibly stemming from other outcomes these have on the heart like arrhythmia prevention.

Hence in case one is taking aspirin everyday then making omega-3 fatty acid as an adjunct to this regime rather than an alternative is highly recommended by several specialists. Individuals having cardiovascular ailment must ideally be aiming for one gram daily derived from fish oil in supplemental form. Individuals in good health require solely two gms per week that they could easily obtain from duo serves of fatty fishes.

Important Tips for Safe Usage of Aspirin

For maximizing the advantages and minimizing risks related to aspirin intake here are few crucial pointers to bear in mind.

Sticking to less-dosage (eighty-one mg baby aspirin)

Baby aspirin has analogous efficacy as standard adult pills (strength over three hundred milligrams) & have lesser likelihood of harming the gut & causing complications. The sole exemption is in case one thinks that one is experiencing a heart attack then in such a scenarios promptly call emergency helpline numbers and then chewing and swallowing a 325 milligrams pill of aspirin.

Protecting the Gut

For individuals with a past of abdominal blood loss however their physicians recommend intake of low-dosage aspirin anyways, they should ideally be asking for inclusion of abdomen-shielding medicines like:

  • Misoprostol – Cytotec & generic version
  • Omeprazole – Prilosec Over-the-Counter, Prilosec & generic version.

In case one is yet incapable of tolerating aspirin or one’s peril of GI bleeding is quite elevated then asking the doctor to recommend another blood thinner drug.

Not Stopping Intake By Yourself

One must not suddenly halt the intake of aspirin since it eradicates its shielding advantages & may augment risk past initial levels by increasing the likelihood of platelet in blood and forming blood clot. In case a person does require stopping aspirin intake, perhaps prior to surgical intervention then doing so as momentarily as doable.

Not Combining Aspirin intake with associated pain allayers

Drugs like naproxen (Aleve & generic) or ibuprofen (Advil & generic) have chemical composition associated with aspirin hence their intake in unison could proliferate the risk of abdominal issues. Also these medicines could weaken blood-thinning outcomes of aspirin. In case one has to use these drugs then taking aspirin no less than 4 hours prior to taking them. This would provide it the opportunity of doing its task while not competing against other drugs.

Chd Heart Attack And Back Pain

An individual might suffer from back pain due to a number of medical conditions, most of which are minor and goes away without any medical intervention. However, back pain is also one of the most common signs of CHD or coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease can be defined as a health disorder in which our arteries get affected. A person suffering from CHD develops problem with the blood flow towards his or her heart; this disrupted flow of blood causes damage to the heart and the sufferer might also become a victim of angina and heart attack. Usually, coronary heart disease shows only a few insignificant symptoms during its initial stages. But, with progression of this disease, the patient starts experiencing several problems such as pain in the back, arms and chest.

One may develop CHD due to a numerous factors; the most common among them are: hypertension, high levels of blood cholesterol, diabetes, obesity and smoking habit. According to medical experts, leading an excessively sedentary life also might also trigger occurrence of CHD. There are also instances, when a person has developed heart diseasesdue to certain genetic links. This means, if you have family members who developed CHD or other heart diseases before reaching the age of 60 years, you are more at risk of developing heart disorders. In such cases, individuals must consult their physicians to know ways of preventing the onset of heart disorders.

Back pain is one of the most common signs of angina or heart attack; on most occasions patients do not experience any sign of CHD until the heart attack actually occurs. Whenever you experience a pain starting from center of the chest and radiating towards the back, arms and neck for over a period of few minutes, you must seek immediate medical attention. Such pains are often signs of heart attacks. Heart attack is often indicated by pain in the chest, neck and back accompanied by conditions like cold sweats, nausea, breathing difficulties and lightheadedness.

 

Back pain accompanies by pain in the arms, shoulders, neck and chest might also indicate occurrence of angina. Angina is another common medical condition occurring due to disruption of blood flow towards the heart. A person suffering from CHD often develops clogged arteries due to deposition of atheroma; atheroma is defined as a fatty agent that restricts the flow of blood towards the heart. When patients with CHD exercise, further stress is imposed on the already clogged arteries; so, usually doctors ask patients diagnosed with CHD to stay away from vigorous exercising. A patient with CHD is allowed to exercise only according to the guidance of an experienced physical trainer and the heart specialist. The signs of angina are lot like heartburn; so you must always get yourself checked for angina whenever you experience heart burn like signs.

Blockage in coronary arteries results in death of heart muscles that received blood from the blocked arteries. This condition might result in heart attacks, which is often indicated by pain in the back, chest and neck.

According to a recently conducted survey by American Heart Association, the number of deaths occurring due to coronary heart diseases in the United States of America is increasing every year. The survey has also come up with statistics that suggest that over 1.2million individuals in USA suffer from heart attacks due to coronary heart disease. Out of these patients, around 30% die. If a person successfully identifies the early signs of heart attacks like pain in the back, neck, arms and chest, the possibility of fatal consequences can be avoided successfully.

Acute Diastolic Heart Failure What Are The Symptoms

Pulmonary edema:
Sudden accumulation of fluid in a patient’s lungs due to an acute diastolic heart failure is medically called pulmonary edema. One of the most common factors responsible for causing this heart failure type is coronary artery disease. The signs indicating pulmonary edema include increase in heart rate, pallor, wheezing, chest pain, restlessness, breathing difficulties, and sweating.

Shock:
Often acute diastolic heart failure end up causing cardiogenic shocks; any patients experiencing this condition should be attended by a doctor immediately. The symptoms of a shock caused by a heart failure or heart disease include: hypotension and decrease in the level of consciousness. The skin of some patients experiencing heart condition related shocks might turn bluish or get discolored and feel extremely cold when touched; these skin changes are more common around the patient’s nail beds and lips.

Hypertension:
Hypertension, a condition characterized by increase in blood pressure levels beyond normal is another common sign of acute diastolic heart failure. The blood vessels of a patient with hypertension become extremely narrow for compensating the inability of his heart in maintaining proper flow of blood.

Pink and frothy sputum:
Acute diastolic heart failure can be indicated by production of bloody or pink-tinged frothy sputum. When the pumping action of the heart is not accomplished properly, it leads to fluid backup. Blood might also backup within the veins. Our system makes us cough for clearing the airways; thus, when the backup of blood occurs, people tend to cough up bloody sputum.

Arrhythmia:
This condition is marked by disturbances in the patient’s heart rhythm. It is one of the most frequently observed sign of acute diastolic heart failure. According to medical experts, increase in the heart’s workload might interfere with the functioning of electrical signals responsible for keeping our heart rate within the normal limits; this might lead to life threatening consequences.

Strategies To Prevent Heart Disease

There are many ways one can avoid heart disease and it is important to know how to deal with the risk factors thus avoiding the occurence of a heart disease.

Using tobacco or smoking is one of the major factors for heart disease to develop. There are chemicals in tobacco which damage your heart and the blood vessels. This leads to the narrowing of the arteries which is called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis finally results in a heart attack. So smoking is not safe and causes a lot of heart problems. Cigarettes with low nicotine content and smokeless tobacco are very risky and it is equal to exposure to secondhand smoke.

The nicotine in the smoke of the cigarette gets the heart to work harder and narrows the blood vessels and increases the blood pressure and heart rate. The smoke in the cigarette has carbon monoxide displaces the oxygen in the blood and replaces it. This totally increases the blood pressure and forces the heart to work a little harder and supplies lot of oxygen. Social smoking is when you smoke only while you are at a restaurant or a bar

Those women who smoke and also take birth control pills are more prone to having a heart attack or a stroke than those who don’t smoke. The entire risk is more with the age and is more pronounced in women who are older than 35.

But normally when you quit the habit of smoking the risk of your getting the heart disease completely drops within a year.  You would get the rewards the moment you quit.

xercise for around half an hour on most of the days of the week. It is good to get some regular exercise every day as it reduces your risk of a fatal heart disease. When you combine the physical activity with other lifestyle patterns like maintaining the proper weight, normally the payoff is even better.

Physical activity helps to control weight and lessens your chance of having other health conditions which put a total strain in the heart. So high cholesterol, high blood pressure and also diabetes reduce stress and this could be a major factor in the heart disease.

It is important to get half an hour or one hour’s moderate physical exercise most of the days So don’t give up come what may and continue the exercise patterns. Break the exercise routine into ten minute sessions.

There are many activities like housekeeping, gardening, and also walking up the stairs which are greatly physically beneficial. You really don’t need strenuous exercise to get good benefits but you should see better benefits by totally increasing the duration, intensity and the frequency of the workouts.

Make sure you have a healthy heart diet. Eating a special diet is the best way to stop hypertension. So your eating plan should be such that it would protect your heart. So follow a diet which is low in cholesterol, fat and slat. The diet is rich in vegetables, fruits, low fat dairy products and whole grains. There are other low fat sources of protein and many types of fish which helps to reduce the heart disease.

It is important to limit the fats that you consume. Saturated and trans fat increase the risk of coronary artery disease and helps to raise the risk of coronary artery disease by increasing the levels of cholesterol in the blood. Dairy products, red meat, palm oil , coconut oil and deep fried fast foods, packaged snack foods, crackers, margarine are all saturated and trans fat foods.

Heart disease is a result of wrong diet, wrong lifestyle and basically a wrong approach towards health. So ensure that you know how to prevent heart disease.

A Device To Monitor Heart Cardiac Activity

A healthy heart is a reflection of healthy life and calm mind.

It is imperative to monitor our heart condition by going for regular heart check up by ECG monitors but in this fast paced life, we always are short of time but patients with erratic heartbeats must get their heart condition monitored and to make this easy and possible in a short swift way a device will be launched in India soon which will keep a check on the vital parameters of your heart.
A device named Mysense Heart, is a 2 inch cardiac monitor and very light and compact. The patch has to be pasted on the sternum, between the breasts. The hearts activity is recorded on the chip in the patch. After a stipulated period of 72 hours the patch can be removed and data can be retrieved for advice and treatment by a medical practitioner.

The data can be stored on the chip for 7 days.

This is the first of its kind wearable device to monitor heart beats, which one can use from home.

Latest software and applications have been used to manufacture this Mysense Heart device.

When marketed it will be very reasonably priced between Rs. 2500 to Rs.  3,700.

Clearly it is an easy and efficient way to keep your heart activity in check, and find remedy to cure them fast.