Effectual Less Invasive Endoscopic Mucosal Resection Therapy For Esophageal Cancer

The scientists from the Mayo Clinic have discovered that preliminary stages of esophageal cancers could be effectually treated by the minimally invasive endoscopic treatment, thus circumventing the need for the removal of the esophagus by surgical means.

The vastly spreading esophageal cancer that arises from Barrett’s esophagus has been noted to have the faster rate of proliferation than any other form of cancer in the U.S.

Nearly ten percent of patients having acute acid reflux develop alterations in the tissues which are typical to Barrett’s esophagus that could cause cancer. The tumor is fatal with 90% of the patients dying in the span of five years of being diagnosed.

Dr. Ganapathy Prasad, M.D., endocrinologist cum lead author on the research stated that in 20% of esophageal cancer cases in the United States the cancer is diagnosed in the preliminary stages. Conventionally, patients with esophageal cancer have to go through a complex surgery involving the removal of the esophagus. Dr.Prasad further added that his team compared surgery to the employment of endoscopic therapy and found that the organ-sparing therapy was equally effectual as surgery in preliminary cancer cases.

During the endoscopic therapy, a scope is introduced inside the esophagus that aids in shaving off the cancerous cells. During the course of this study conducted on 178 patients that had preliminary stage esophageal adenocarcinoma, 132 of those patients underwent endoscopic mucosal resection and 46 patients underwent surgery.

During the endoscopic mucosal resection therapy, the patients went through a procedure wherein a liquid was infused underneath the lesion followed by the use of an endoscope for shaving off the lesions. The other 46 patients that were chosen for surgery underwent the conventional removal of the esophagus.

Both the groups of patients were tracked for a period of nine years with each group having an analogous general death rate of nearly 20%. The cancer relapsed in 12% of patients that underwent endoscopic therapy, but were ably treated by doctors through the endoscopic treatment.

Dr. Prasad elucidated that those patients subsequent to undergoing esophagectomy surgery needed to be hospitalised for a week’s time, with 30-50% of those patients experiencing certain complications following surgery. For instance, those esophagectomy patients had to endure long lasting dietetic restraints. However, endoscopic therapy is conducted on an outpatient basis and the patients could resume eating normal meals in a span of couple of days.

Dr. Kenneth Wang, M.D., gastroenterologist and senior scientist of the study stated that if patients decide to undergo surgery they ideally must opt for high-volume hospitals that have enhanced survival prospects and results for the patients. Dr. Wang further added that future study in this field would encompass examining genetic markers to aid in deciding the superlative line of treatment for esophageal cancer patients. Additionally, the team aims for the imminent usage of endoscopic therapy in later stages of esophageal cancers.

Kidney Cancer

Kidney Cancer is the malignancy of the kidney tissues found in the lining of the miniature tubes that clean blood and excrete waste (renal cell carcinoma or renal adenocarcinoma) and those tissues at the core of the kidney where urine accumulates (renal pelvis carcinoma). Wilms tumour is also a form of kidney cancer that normally develops in under the age group of five children.

Renal cell carcinoma is the widely accounted type of kidney cancer that constitutes nine out ten reported cases. It is seen to occur in elderly individuals averaging 65 years with atypical occurrence in those below 40 years.

Kidney Cancer Causes:

Though the exact causes for kidney cancer are still quite blurred, research has revealed that certain risk factors make an individual more prone to the disease. They include:

  • Those who consume tobacco are doubling their chances of getting kidney cancer. The longer span of time a person smokes, the greater the risk, though the risk reduces for those that quit.
  • Being obese or grossly overweight is correlated to nearly three of the ten kidney cancer cases.
  • There has been a common observation that kidney cancer is generally noticed in individuals with high blood pressure or perhaps due to the medications taken in the due course.
  • Those with improper functioning kidneys that undergo dialysis for extended periods of time are at risk of getting kidney cancer.
  • An uncommon genetic disorder caused due to abnormalities in the Von-Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene known as the VHL syndrome leads to ulcer or tumour formation in the eyes, brain or other body parts that leads to kidney cancer. Another type of atypical genetic condition is Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome. Though inherited conditions make up a smaller number of cases, yet those with genetic pre-disposition must seek medical advice as to early diagnosis of kidney cancer and other diseases prior to the symptomatic appearance.
  • Those with occupational hazards like exposure to asbestos, cadmium, benzene, other organic solvents and coke oven operators from iron and steel plants.
  • Men are known to be twice at risk in comparison to women to getting kidney cancer. Annually, U.S. has a reported 20,000 cases of men and 12,000 women who find out they have contracted lung cancer. Many that have the risk factors might not get kidney cancer, while contrarily those who do contract the disease have had no risk factors.

Kidney Cancer Symptoms:

Though in the preliminary stages, kidney cancer is asymptomatic, but as its spreads symptoms become evident. They may comprise of:

  • The widely common indicator of blood being passed through the urine.
  • A lumpy or mass formation on the sides or in the abdominal area.
  • A persistent pain on the sides or back.
  • Decreased craving for food and loss in weight.
  • General sense of fatigue or ill health.
  • Fever.
  • Increased blood pressure or reduced red blood cell count (anaemia) may also indicate the presence of kidney cancer.

Sometimes the presence of an infection, cyst formation or other illness could also exhibit similar symptoms. An individual displaying any of the above symptoms must get medical assistance for prompt diagnosis and treatment.

Exams & Tests:

After taking into consideration the general or family medical history and a detailed physical examination, the tests undertaken would comprise of:

  • A urinalysis test to detect presence of blood in the urine.
  • Blood tests to find any presence of infection, anaemia, the creatinine levels in the kidney among other substances, liver function test.
  • Intravenous pyelogram or IVP is the set of x-rays undertaken of the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder subsequent to intravenous injection of a dye that aids in detecting presence of any ailment including cancer, kidney stones in the urinary tract.
  • Any kidney tumour is detected by a computed tomography scan or CT scan.
  • An x-ray of the chest will help to decipher the extent of disease spread to the lungs.
  • A bone scan will help to detect if the bones have been infected with the disease.
  • An MRI or Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanning technique with the aid of a magnet helps find out whether the cancer has travelled to the brain or the spinal cord.
  • With the help of a miniscule quantity of radioactive substance, the cancer spread to the lymph nodes or other body organs can be detected with the assistance of the PET or Positron emission tomography scan.
  • A biopsy using the fine needle aspirator technique with the assistance of ultrasound, a tissue sample is extracted for laboratory analysis.

Kidney Cancer Treatment:

Treatment alternatives include:

  • Surgical intervention being the adept choice wherein through the procedure called nephrectomy, in majority of the cases, the entire kidney is done away with. Alternatively through partial-nephrectomy, simply the tumour is removed, leaving the remaining functional part of the kidney that can be undertaken if both kidneys are infected or the tumour is in its initial stages. The infected lymph nodes could also be removed during surgery.
  • In Radiation therapy, using high power dosage of x-rays, the cancerous cells can be stunted prior to surgery or on those unwell and incapable of surgery.
  • Arterial embolization involves blocking the flow of blood within the artery that leads to cancer, thus aiding in shrivelling the tumours prior to surgery. This aids in decreasing the appearance of symptoms in those cases where surgery is unfeasible.
  • The first option employed in case of metastasis, the localised target therapy employs the use of medication to attack the specific undesirable substances associated with malignant cancer growth. For instance, some medicines hinder the proliferation of blood vessels that provide for the tumours.
  • Biological therapy or Immunotherapy is a form of systemic therapy that involves the usage of substances that pass through the bloodstream, targeting the malignant cells, thus bolstering the body’s innate immunity to combat cancer. In metastatic kidney cancer patients, the use of alpha or interleukin-2 (IL-2 or aldesleukin) is medically advised. This is innately produced by the body in small quantities on encountering any infection.
  • Cancer fighting drugs are administered through the entire body by the use of Chemotherapy, a form of systemic therapy that is opted for when targeted therapy or immunotherapy has no visible effects. Various pain suppressants among others medicines are given to combat the pain and side effects associated with the treatment.
  • Cryoablation involves the freezing of the cancerous cells using one or more specialized needles or cryoprobes that are pierced into the skin with extremely cold gas been inserted through it to kill the tumor.
  • Clinical trials are suggested to many patients as it offers a chance to sample the latest treatments.

Possible Complications:

The kidney cancer commences in the form of small rounded structure lesser than seven centimetres in diameter in the kidney at the preliminary stages, then eventually grows in size as it proliferates further than the kidney, to the close by lymph node, the adrenal gland or adipose tissue surrounding the kidney or its spreads to among the large veins close to the kidney. In the final stages, it has spread through the fibrous tissue that encircles the kidney or reached greater than one lymph node or to several organs like the lungs.

Preliminary stage cancer react more than compared to those in the advanced stages.

Prevention:

One can undertake the following steps to improve health and decrease the chances of getting kidney cancer.

  • Stopping smoking.
  • Consuming fresh produce of fruits and vegetables on a daily basis, inculcating it even as snack items or side courses in one’s diet.
  • Close to thirty minutes of any physical form of activity started off in a slow pace with gradual increase in intensity.
  • Maintain optimal weight and keeping blood pressure at check.
  • Taking adequate precaution against occupational exposure to hazardous substances.

Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer is a malignant, cancerous or abnormal proliferation of the cells lining the air passages of the lungs. Based on microscopic diagnosis, the two main forms of lung cancer include small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer.

Small cell lung cancers (SCLC) are oat-shaped cancerous cells that mostly develop in the tissue layer below the epithelial lining of the lungs called the bronchial sub-mucosa, chiefly noticed in heavy smokers or those with a smoking past. Comprising 20-25% of reported cases, it rapidly multiplies and spreads to other body parts.

Squamous cell carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma are together known as non-small cell carcinoma. In Squamous cell carcinoma, fish scales-like cancer cells that start in the bronchi, may persist in the chest without multiplying for longer times than other cancer forms. In Adenocarcinoma, cubical or column shaped cancer cells grow in the outer periphery of the lungs and underneath the bronchial tissue lining. It is the most prevalent lung cancer form accounting to 25-30% cases, with non-smokers being the most likely cases. This sub-form of Adenocarcinoma is known as Bronchoalveolar carcinoma. The Large cell carcinomas constitute 10-20% of the cases and are found commonly in the smaller bronchi.

Lung Cancer Causes:

The leading cause of lung cancer constituting 85-90% of reported cases is cigarette smoking, with cigar or pipe smoking also correlated to the disease. Other causes comprise of contact with radon, asbestos, nickel, chloromethyl ether, chromium, beryllium and arsenic –a derivative of copper and passive or second hand smoking.

The risks of developing lung cancer are high due to the factors like:

  • Those who smoke, are over 50 years of age, have a past history of smoking or lung disease or family history of lung cancer.
  • Having worked in industries that utilise materials like asbestos, nickel, chromium, beryllium, arsenic and chloromethyl ether. Those who have had contact with radon.
  • Exposure to passive or second smoke.

Lung Cancer Symptoms:

Lung cancer in the initial stages is asymptomatic. However, symptoms start occurring when eventually the tumour enlarges; it exerts pressure and invades on the space of the close by structures and nerves known as metastasis.

If the cancer started and spread from the bronchi to the surrounding lymph nodes, the symptoms may comprise of:

  • Coughing that may be accompanied by blood when the tumour grows causing a passage block.
  • Presence of pneumonia.
  • Experiencing chest pain and shortness or difficulty in breathing.
  • Hoarse voice due to pressure exerted on the nerves and trouble in ingesting due to considerable blockage of the oesophagus.
  • Due to the pressure exerted on the blood vessels, there is a swell-up of the facial, neck and upper parts of the body.
  • Feeling exhaustion, loss of desire for food and decrease in weight.
  • If the cancer has commenced and spread to the upper parts of the lung, then one may experience weakness along with radiating pain in the shoulder that is even felt in the arms, hands due to the pressure exerted on the nerves.
  • If cancer has spread to the brain then the associated symptoms include headaches, weakness, marked behavioural alterations, speech difficulties and memory loss. If the cancerous cells have moved on to other body parts then there are symptoms of pain, jaundice, blood clotting and bone fractures.
  • The tumour growths cause variations in hormone production known as Paraneoplastic syndrome that control body functions, leading to male breast augmentation, pain in the bones and joints, excessive production of corticosteroid hormones leading to Cushing’s syndrome. Overproduction of serotonin hormone leading to Carcinoid syndrome. There is notable excessive production of calcium known as Hypercalcemia.

Exams & Tests:

If in doubt, a thorough physical examination is undertaken by the doctor after noting down the medical past, will examine the areas of the neck, over the collarbones for swelling of the lymph nodes, unnatural abdominal swelling and indicators of lung accumulation. By palpating the doctor would be able to detect any swellings, and by using a stethoscope any lung accumulations, abnormal lung sounds or dullness can be identified.

Tests would comprise of the following:

  • An X-ray to identify abnormal growths.
  • A sputum test that involves taking the phlegm sample emitted from the lungs to be tested for cancer cells.
  • A biopsy that involves the precision surgical removal of dubious tissue done employing procedures like bronchoscopy – the use of flexible delicate tube through the neck or percutanoeus needle that pierces the skin into the lung with the assistance of CT scanning or ultrasound to aid in navigation for removal of the sample.
  • Spirometry or known as pulmonary function test to record rate and total volume of exhalation that are indicators of constriction or blocking in airways.
  • Once the lung cancer has been diagnosed, detailed study is undertaken to evaluate the spread to determine the relevant treatment. These include a CAT, PET and bone scan.

Lung Cancer Treatment:

Due to the restricted effectuality of standardised treatment, lung cancer patients are hence persuaded to go in for clinical trials that are designed to unravel novel therapy techniques. Singular or combination of surgery, radiation therapy, laser therapy, Photodynamic therapy (PDT), oxygen therapy, Thoracentesis, Pleurodesis and chemotherapy are administered to treat the disease. Chemotherapy drugs are administered either orally or intravenously to treat even advanced forms of cancer.

The four forms of surgery include:

  • Wedge resection – removal of a triangular piece of tissue that is the tumour itself and the encircled little amount of normal tissue. When a significantly larger sized tissue is removed, it is known as segmental resection.
  • Lobectomy- the surgical removal of a complete lobe or part of the lung.
  • Pneumonectomy- the surgical removal of one complete lung.
  • Sleeve resection- the surgical removal of a section of bronchus.

Medications are used to relieve tingling, burning, mild, moderate and severe pain using anti-inflammatory drugs such as NSAIDs, narcotic pain suppressors, anti-depressants, anti-convulsants or anti-seizure medicines.

Additionally, to optimise treatment complementary therapy is also opted that include acupuncture, herbal medications, meditation, yoga, biofeedback, dietary and vitamin supplements and visualization.

Possible Complications:

Lung cancer can create complications like respiratory distress or heart problems like:

  • Accumulation of fluid between the outer lung lining and the chest called Pleural effusion.
  • Bloody cough.
  • Prolapsed lung condition called pneumothorax.
  • Airways restriction known as bronchial obstruction.
  • Frequently occurring pneumonia.
  • Fluid accumulation in between the heart and the pericardium surrounding it called pericardial effusion.
  • The lung cancer metastasizes to major parts of the body.
  • Death is most cases if detected in later stages.

Prevention:

Though there no sure shot way to avert lung cancer, one can decrease the chances by adopting the following steps:

  • Avoiding or halting existent smoking habit or second-hand smoke. Halting or moderating the alcohol consumption to one drink in case of woman or two in case of men. If over 65 years of age, not exceeding greater than one drink in a day.
  • Getting one’s residence tested for radon.
  • Taking adequate precautionary measures at work place like wearing shielding gear, if exposed to toxic substances at work.
  • Consuming ample amounts of fruits and vegetables into one’s daily diet.
  • Exercising close to half an hour after proper consultation about the type and intensity. Slow or moderate forms of exercise are advisable. Activities such as walking, cycling and swimming are considered as idyllic options. Adding physical forms of exercise to daily life like taking the stairs rather than the lift, parking away from workplace and walking the extra way.

Mobile Phones The Debatable Health Safety Quotient Part Ii

The EWG researchers have detected other disturbing trends that linked mobile phone radiation with recurrent migraine and vertigo being noticed. According to a study done on more than four lakh grown-ups from Denmark that used cell phones for protracted periods of time, it was noted that ten to twenty percent of them were highly prone to be hospitalised due to migraine problem or vertigo in contrast to those that made lesser use of mobile phones.

The EWG researchers mentioned that they are continuing the use of the mobile phones; however customers must opt for only those phones that had the lowest possible radiation emission rates.

The EWG rated a list of thousand mobile phones based on their radiation emission levels and has drawn a listing of ten phones with the top ranked on the listing not necessarily indicating that the phone is the highly idyllic or the safest bet, but just that the phones displayed lowest possible emissions when compared to the other phone models whose data was accessible.

The following top ten listing is based on the lowest possible emission rates:

  1. Samsung Impression.
  2. Motorola RAZR V8.
  3. Samsung SGH-t229.
  4. Samsung Rugby.
  5. Samsung Propel Pro.
  6. Samsung Gravity.
  7. T Mobile Sidekick.
  8. LG Xenon.
  9. Motorola Karma.
  10. Sanyo Kantana II.

The much clamoured for model, iPhone 3G was perched in the middle spot of the entire listing. The following phone models featured at the tail end of the listing depicting the soaring radiation emissions that included phones like T-Mobile Shadow, Motorola W385, Blackberry Curve 8330, T-Mobile myTouch3G, Motorola MOTO VU204 and Kyocera Jax S1300.

With the raging debate on the cancer threats among cell phone users continues, the MD of the American Cancer Society, Mr. Michael Thun who reassessed the EWG report states that their conclusion regarding soaring proofs of health damage is flawed as they have not investigated the protracted usage of phones.

Mr.Thun cited the example of Sweden to make his point clear stating that it had the longest spanning history of mobile phone use, yet no rise in the brain cancer cases have been reported there. He stated that factually the rate of cell phone usage has soared in the past twenty years. He added that the radiation emitted from cell phones are non-ionising in nature that do not break down the DNA.

Thun agrees to the conclusion in the report that lays emphasis on the point that cell phones need stronger government guidelines. Thun also noted that those apprehensive about cell phone usage could opt for the corded or the cordless earpieces as the major exposure emanates from the antenna. So, with earpiece that is hardly any significant kind exposure.

Mesothelioma Cancer

It is a relatively uncommon type of cancer that adversely affects the cells of the mesothelium, a protective sac that encapsulates majority of the body’s inner organs. As a result, the mesothelial cells become malignant or cancerous, proliferating unabated, infecting and damaging closely placed tissues and organs. Though the risk increases with age, the disease can surface at any age, with men more than women being affected.

Mesothelioma Cancer Causes:

Almost 70-80% of Mesothelioma cases are occupation-derived where they were exposed to asbestos particles. Individuals living with the person with asbestos exposure or themselves been exposed to a particular virus are at risk to develop mesothelioma.

Mesothelioma CancerMesothelioma Cancer Symptoms:

The symptoms might not become evident till the age of 50 subsequent to preliminary exposure, but once they become noticeable, they quickly spread leading to fatal complications. In some cases, the cancer leads to fluid build-up in the areas surrounding the lungs or abdominal area that indicates to the presence of fluid or malignant mesothelioma. Apparent signs are:

Difficulty in breathing.
Discomfort or painful sensation underneath the rib cage.
Pain or swelling up in the abdominal area.
Unexplained weight reduction.
Exams & Tests:

Tests and procedures that diagnose the inner parts of the chest and abdomen include the following:

A detailed physical exam is undertaken wherein the patient’s medical history, lifestyle, previous exposure to asbestos, presence of any indicators of the disease like lumps or any dubious abnormal signs.
An x-ray of the internal organs and bones within the chest.
Blood samples are drawn to determine the complete blood count and the sedimentation rate of the red blood cells.
A biopsy is undertaken wherein tissues are removed from peritoneum, between two ribs, abdominal wall, lung using either a fine needle or tube-like instrument, so that the tissue samples can be microscopically examined by a pathologist for any indicators of cancer.
A bronchoscope, a thin, tubular instrument is inserted into the trachea via the mouth or nose to either view or collect tissue samples.
In Cytologic exam, the cells or fluids drawn from around the lungs or abdominal area are sent for pathological analysis.
Mesothelioma Cancer Treatment:

Dependant on the location, the spread of the disease, the patient’s age and general physical health, a standardised set of treatments are followed, that include:

Surgical intervention, a general treatment adopted wherein the malignant sections of the chest, abdomen, lung or diaphragm are removed.
Radiation therapy or Radiotherapy employs high energy beams to eradicate cancerous cells and stunt the growth of tumours in a specific, localised problem area.
Chemotherapy involves the utilization of anti-cancer drugs to destroy cancer cells in the body. Majority of the drugs employed to cure mesothelioma are administered through intra-venous injections. The effectual use of intra-cavitary chemotherapy to exclusively target areas of the chest or abdomen is being delved into by doctors.
To alleviate symptoms and ease pain, a draining out of fluids collected in the chest or abdominal area is done using a fine needle or delicate tube. When the procedure is done from the abdomen it is known as paracentesis and thoracentesis when extracted from the chest. Drugs may be administered using a tube in the chest to avert further fluid accumulation.
In Chemotherapy sessions, cycles of mitomycin, vinblastine and cisplatin are administered according to dosage. Alternatively, vinorelbine is injected on a weekly basis for prescribed periods. These are followed alongside treatments for active symptom control that involve the use of steroids, pain-suppressors, bronchodilators and analgesic radiotherapy.
Possible Complications:

If diagnosis is in undertaken during early stages with proper general health, then surgery is the option. According to medical study, subsequent to diagnosis, the standard survival rate is near 4-18 months with several factors that influence it. If surgery is a success with positive response from the patient to added treatments then survival would exceed the standard rates.

Prevention:

If one is working in an industry that partakes in the habitual use of toxic substances then wearing appropriate shielding gear at all times is mandatory. Subsequent to work hours, the protective clothing should be left at the work place because wearing them outside of work premises will undesirably expose others to its toxicity.

Asbestos exposure mainly happens during renovating homes like insulating attics, tiling floors and is present in roof grits and tar, drywall and its adhesive, popcorn ceilings, joint compounds, encasings on pipes and electrical wiring.

Watching out for damages in fireproofing, brake pads, countertops textured ceilings and coating is crucial as the lethal fibres that constitute asbestos effortlessly circulate in the air and can be inhaled.

If prior exposure has already occurred, one needs to be vigilant and go in for annual testing like the FDA approved Mesomark blood test, pulmonary function test and other imaging tests. Smoking ups the chances of contracting the disease that when coupled with asbestosis is a lethal combination.

Pancreatic Cancer Develops Gradually Can Be Spotted

According to study scientists, cancer of the pancreas has slow development and takes more than a decade or even more for growing, a discovery which proffers the possibility of catching it sooner and curing it.

Helming the trial, Doctor B. Vogelstein from the Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore explicated that this discovery offers a big window of chance to endeavour at detecting existence of such cancer forms in the initial two decades prior to them becoming fatal.

During a telephonic interview, the lead researcher added that in case this could be done, one could theoretically treat these through surgical intervention.

Pancreatic cancer developmentPancreatic cancer is among the most deadly cancer forms taking the lives of ninety-five percent or more of its sufferers within 5 years after being diagnosed.

According to the ACS (American Cancer Society), just during last year pancreatic cancer has been identified in forty-two thousand people in the United States and over thirty-five thousand deaths due to the disease.

The study group headed by Doctor Vogestein worked in collaboration with scientists from the Univ. of Cambridge & Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst. conducting a sort of heritable archaeologic probe of tumors of the pancreas. They did collections of autopsy tissue samples soon following pancreatic cancer patients deaths along with 3 patients in whom surgical removal of tumors were done in an endeavour at salvaging lives.

Duo thesis appearing in the Nature journal illustrated the manner in which they employed tumor mutations alongside molecular clock for timing the development of tumors.

DNA mutation occurs at a speed which could be computed & the scientists are aware which ones are due to pancreatic cancer. The scientists then contrasted DNA mutations in the original tumor in the pancreas to the metastatic tumors in several organs of the body.

Cancer Lineage

The lead researcher stated that they were able to sort of generate a genealogy with every consecutive generation been observed to have supplementary mutations to the genes which commenced the course. He added that from doing so it was apparent that it takes several decades for the cancer in developing to complete malignancy. This translates to the fact that such cancer forms, majority of these don’t have a quick development however factually more alike other cancer types inclusive of colon cancer.

The scientists approximated that the cancer typically took somewhere over eleven years prior to the foremost actual cancerous cell developing in the pre-malignant lesion. It took a further 6.8 years for the tumor in growing & the foremost cancerous cell in metastasizing to other areas of the body and additionally over two years till the patient died as a result of the cancer.

The most challenging aspect is to get screened for pancreatic cancer. Detection and prevention of colon cancer is possible through colonoscopy procedure wherein a camera threaded via the colon & removal of pre-malignant lesion is done when identified.

However the pancreas could be tricky in getting to & despite tumors being detected prior to them extensively metastasizing, it necessitates intricate surgical procedure for removing the cancer. In the case of the bowel, doctors could easily get in and remove malignancy.

The study group is endeavouring to detect means of finding DNA mutations from tumors in the pancreas or pre-malignant lesions in the bloodstream. Several other groups are probing means of finding tumor cells which circulate whereas others are looking at deploying CAT or MRI scanning for detecting tumors prior to them making the affected person symptomatic.

May Is Melanoma Awareness Month Questions To Ask Your Physician

All sun worshippers need to be warned that they are gambling with their lives. Melanoma is among the most lethal skin cancers & the main obliterator in females. With May being held as Melanoma Awareness Month, here are answers to the commonest queries posed regarding the disease.

Majority of the cancer rates are decreasing – apart from Melanoma – rising fifty percent among females in the age band of fifteen and thirty-nine years of age since the eighties & 2004, as per NCI information. Any age group, kids included, are developing melanoma at a greater rate than what they earlier did. Nobody has immunity against this deadly skin cancer form.

In spite of this outlook, the positive aspect is that Melanoma can easily be prevented & treated in majority of the situations. Moreover, the FDA giving its approval for ipilimumab in the treatment of later staging melanoma is also great news.

Around 4 from 5 melanoma cases are detected sooner enough for treating ably, as per Mayo Clinic information. However, for timely catching melanoma it is important to be prudent skin scouts. Here are answers to commonly posed queries which could be truly life-saving.

At what frequency must one be checking for moles?

Experts advice on doing mole-checking on a monthly basis like picking the 1st day of their menses or the month for making it simpler in remembering. Mole mapping is one more choice for people having many moles on their bodies. It is a technique that deploys computer software for plotting & tracking any alterations in moles and costing some hundred dollars which insurers do not cover. However, a person could be doing it on their own by visually partitioning his/ her body into parts & take digital pictures of all of them in three to six monthly time intervals. Being vigilant is the answer – over 2/3rd of melanomas are discovered by the patients on their own or their mates, buddies & kin members, as per a N. Western Univ. trial conducted in 2009.

What is the ideal time for checking one’s body?

Post-showering or bathing, conduct an examination of your bare body in front of a big long mirror, working from the head to toe to scrutinize head, shoulder, back, trunk, neck onwards down. Hand-held mirrors could be used for getting a nice rear-side viewing or enlisting your mate. One must also be checking underneath the nail areas, toe-webs & sole of every foot.

What must one be looking for?

Being watchful for growth or change in form or colour of moles alongside any newly surfaced darkish moles and being especially attentive when a dermatologist has notified you to keep a close eye upon.

When must one be visiting a dermatologist?

No sooner has one noticed any dubious appearing moles, any changes in existent mole or a sore which fails in healing then it is a sign for calling your physician.

Visit a physician within a fortnight of having spotted any dubious moles. In case you haven’t been able to instantly get a slot with the doctor then mention that you have spotted a dubious spot which requires quick exam.

Visit your physician whenever moles have any of the below mentioned caveat indications put forth by the ASDS:

A – Asymmetrical or rough outline. Fifty percent of the mole differs from the rest half of it.
B – irregular border. Borders might be raggedy or blurry.
C – Change in colour or irregular colour. Mole might be brownish, reddish, tan or blackish.
D – Diameter. The mole is big measuring 1/4th inch or more.
E – Evolving. One should be reporting any alteration in the size, form, risen appearance or texture at the earliest.
Moreover, touching the moles and checking whether scaling, itchiness, firmness or lumpiness is felt or any form of emission or blood loss is present which all are caveat indications.

Does skin colour augment risk for melanoma?

Certainly, people with fair skin & reddish or blond mane, light eyes, freckling & who get sunburnt easily are at greater risk for melanoma.

However, people of colour too could develop melanoma & have a greater likelihood of dying from it. This is due to the erroneous belief that they aren’t at risk & several doctors aren’t conducting rigorous screening on them hence it is mostly detected in the advanced staging.

In several situations, the disease hasn’t anything to be doing with exposure to the sun’s rays.

Negroes have a tendency of getting acrolentiginous melanomas – on the sole of the foot & underneath nail areas.

Which other factor augments melanoma risk?

A person is at a greater risk when he/ she is having a lot of moles (fifty or more) or having dysplastic nevi, moles which are eraser head-sized or bigger which have a greater likelihood of turning malignant as compared to regular moles.

Some other Melanoma risk factors entail:

Sun-worshipping as kid or teenager, particularly when one has got acute, blistered sunburn marks.
You are residing in sunny locations.
Using tanning bed, especially when under mid-thirties as it is capable of harming DNA of the cells.
People with compromised immune system due to conditions like AIDS or cancers.
Are other types of skin cancer increasing one’s risk for melanoma?

Other types of skin cancer are not causal to melanoma though they suggest sun exposures. In case one has basal cell carcinoma, the commonest form of skin cancer or squamous cell carcinoma, the 2nd commonest one then you have been overly exposed to the sun. However, the duo does not have a direct relation to melanoma.

What measures could be adopted for lowering risk?

Staying away from sun exposure, especially between ten in the morning to two in the afternoon.
Using broad spectrum sunscreen for protecting from ultraviolet A and B rays with SPF 15 in the least. More the SPF figure, more protracted the shielding lasts. Sunscreen application must be done twenty to thirty minutes prior to going outdoors & in 2-hourly time interval beyond this.
Covering up, donning longish sleeved tops & trousers, a broad-rim headgear & sunglasses for blocking the ultraviolet rays. Clothes are the finest means of protecting oneself from the sun.
Skip using tanning bed.

What occurs post-diagnosis?

When a mole appears dubious then the physician would be biopsying it wherein the mole is cut out along with some extent of fleshy part encasing it.

In case it is more than 1mm then the surgeons even would be excising the 1st lymph node in which malignancy would be showing up (known as sentinel node) to check cancer metastatis.

What are the treatment options for cancer having metastasized?

Therapy choices are contentious since they are rather toxic and having more unsuccessful rates. FDA-consented ipilimumab could be deployed for treating melanoma which couldn’t be excised with surgical intervention or which has metastasized. Dacarbazine is the sole chemo having FDA-nod for treating melanoms. However, response rates in sufferers having cancer metastasis are below fifteen percent & also when cancer has shrivelled or also disappeared, it mostly recurs.

An FDA-accepted medicine Interferon offered post-surgery for lowering one’s chances of cancer relapsing is an immunity-booster. However, it is a tough, one year lasting therapy. Duo large-scaled studies done in the late nineties & 2000 noted that melanoma tumor among patients offered interferon therapy relapsed 8 months later as compared to sufferers not given interferon therapy. However, the interferon-users had longer existence as compared to the placebo set.

B-RAF inhibitor is being deemed as one of the finest drugs & is undergoing scientific studies. It works by targeting a prevalent mutation of the cancer cells with negligible side-effects.

Green Tea Extract Restrains Cancer In Most Cll Cases

This is the recent in a succession of Mayo researches to exhibit potential of using EGCG or epigallocatechin gallate – the key constituent in green tea in lowering numbers of leukemia cells in CLL (chronic lymphocytic leukemia) patients. Mayo Clinic study firstly evaluated the green tea extract, EGCG in an array of lab assays around 8 years back and was noted to lower the survival rate in CLL cells. The lab discovery was then ensued by a triumphant first phase scientific study – the foremost instant when a green tea extract have been employed in CLL-afflicted patients.

Doctor Tait Shanafelt, specialist in the field of hematology and helming the trial stated that solely a relative phase three study could ascertain if EGCG could postpone advancement of CLL though the gains which have been noted in majority of the CLL cases who employed the green tea extract indicate that it has favourable clinical activity and might be beneficial to stabilize a leukemia type and thus potentially slacken it.

Doctor Neil Kay, a haematologist and study investigator whose lab firstly conducted tests of EGCG in leukemia blood cells from CLL cases stated that the use of toxin-free chemical substances for reverting cancerous development for postponing the requirement of toxic treatment is a worthwhile objective in oncology study – especially for cancer types whose earlier management were observation-based like CLL.

The duo doctors have cautioned that the green tea extract is not an alternative to chemotherapy. The Mayo study entrants who underwent treatment with EGCG were in the initial staging, non-symptomatic CLL patients that had would not have undergone treatment till their condition advanced.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a blood cancer type which is a cross in-between lymphoma and leukemia. Advancement of the condition is evaluated by the amounts of leukemic cells in the bloodstream and bone marrow alongside enlarged lymph nodes because of the leukemic cells penetrating.

During the first phase of the trial that appeared in the ‘Journal of Clinical Oncology’, investigators noted that the leukemic cell count lessened in 1/3rd of the candidates and that most of the entrants with lymph node enlargement because of connection with CLL noted a fifty percent or more lessening in the size of lymph nodes.

Employing the max dosage evaluated in the first phase of the clinical trial, the investigators unveiled their second phase of scientific study in extra thirty-six patients. The study evaluated the outcomes of such thirty-six entrants along with 6 patients from the initial phase of the study treated at the analogous dosage. Outcomes from forty-one patients who concluded the trial revealed that thirty-one percent of patients had a twenty percent or more continual lowering in blood lymphocyte count and sixty-nine percent of patients having lymph node enlargement noticed a lowering in node size of fifty percent or more.

The doctors pointed out that overall the therapy was ably tolerated and carried mild-ranging side-effects in majority of the patients.

Researchers point out that a third phase of scientific study is necessary prior to EGCG being recommended to CLL patients. However those keen on taking supplements must seek oncologist consultation and require apt supervision employing lab tests.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia or ALL is a form of white blood cell cancer and is mainly made up of the excess lymphoblasts. It has been seen that malignant leucocytes multiply at a regular rate and are produced in the bone marrow. This condition is called the acute lymphoblastic leukemia causes a lot of damage to body, and sometimes results in death. This happens because it overcrowds the normal cells in the bone marrow. There is lot of infiltration within the organ and all is thus very common in childhood and reaches a peak when the child is around 2 or 5 years of age. Then this condition is seen to increase when the individual reaches old age. The children are seen to be cured at the rate of 80% and the adults are cured at the rate of 50%.
Acute means a short time period. So acute lymphoblastic leukemia means it is there for a short time. If it is left untreated then it becomes a fatal disease Chroninc lymphocytic leukemia is different from this condition. Lymphoblastic state refers to the state of the lymphocytes. They are in an immature or a blast state which means that the cells are not like the original lymphocytes.

Diagnosis of Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Diagnosing the ALL starts with knowing the medical history and also physically examining the condition. Then there are blood smears taken and also the complete blood count test taken so that the
actual situation would be known. The symptoms for this condition are normally very general; so many other diseases with similar signs should be first eliminated. The higher the white blood cell count, the diagnosis would be the worse. There are blast cells that are seen in the blood smears. A bone marrow biopsy would be required and it si the best proof of the all. If there is a lumbar puncture, then the diagnosis on whether the brain and the spinal cord have been affected or not would be made.

Symptoms of ALL

The initial symptoms that are seen in this condition are not only for all, but are seen in many other diseases. They gradually worsen to a point where medical help is required. This condition is aggravated more due to the lack of normal blood cells. The entire area inside is flooded with the immature and malignant white blood cells or the leucocytes. So it is normal for people with ALL to have a lot of white blood cells and this is the first indication that there is a spread of tumour within. So the erythrocytes, the platelets and the leukocytes could malfunction. Laboratory tests would show that there are abnormalities in the blood count and the renal function and also in the electrolyte tests and the liver enzyme tests. The person normally would have a lot of anemia, frequent infection and also a sudden loss of appetite, with some unexplained bruising, pain in the joints, breathlessness, pitting edema in the lower legs, enlarged lymph nodes, and tiny red spots in the skin due to the lower levels of platelets.

Pathophysiology

Cancer is normally caused due to the DNA getting damaged and leads to unwanted growth of cells. This spreads to the whole body and increases the chemical symptoms that lead to the growth. Damage is also caused due to the formation of fusion genes and also by environmental fact
ors like drugs, radiation and chemicals. Damage is also caused due to the TCell receptor gene and also when the proto onco gene fails to regulate.

ALL is normally linked with the person getting exposed to radiation and also to chemicals. Radiation and leukemia are closely related and there have been studies that have been established which have shown how nuclear reactors and bombs have caused leukemia. There have been epidemiological studies have linked leukemia with exposure to chemicals and these studies are not very conclusive. Also it has been seen that exposure to chemicals and benzene can also cause leukemia.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a condition caused due to overproduction of white blood cells within the body.